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29 USC §206 | MINIMUM WAGE


(a) Employees engaged in commerce; home workers in Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands; employees in American Samoa; seamen on American vessels; agricultural employees. Every employer shall pay to each of his employees who in any workweek is engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or is employed in an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, wages at the following rates:
(1) except as otherwise provided in this section, not less than —
(A) $5.85 an hour, beginning on the 60th day after May 25, 2007;
(B) $6.55 an hour, beginning 12 months after that 60th day; and
(C) $7.25 an hour, beginning 24 months after that 60th day;

(2) if such employee is a home worker in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, not less than the minimum piece rate prescribed by regulation or order; or, if no such minimum piece rate is in effect, any piece rate adopted by such employer which shall yield, to the proportion or class of employees prescribed by regulation or order, not less than the applicable minimum hourly wage rate. Such minimum piece rates or employer piece rates shall be commensurate with, and shall be paid in lieu of, the minimum hourly wage rate applicable under the provisions of this section. The Administrator, or his authorized representative, shall have power to make such regulations or orders as are necessary or appropriate to carry out any of the provisions of this paragraph, including the power without limiting the generality of the foregoing, to define any operation or occupation which is performed by such home work employees in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands; to establish minimum piece rates for any operation or occupation so defined; to prescribe the method and procedure for ascertaining and promulgating minimum piece rates; to prescribe standards for employer piece rates, including the proportion or class of employees who shall receive not less than the minimum hourly wage rate; to define the term “home worker”; and to prescribe the conditions under which employers, agents, contractors, and subcontractors shall cause goods to be produced by home workers;
(3) if such employee is employed as a seaman on an American vessel, not less than the rate which will provide to the employee, for the period covered by the wage payment, wages equal to compensation at the hourly rate prescribed by paragraph (1) of this subsection for all hours during such period when he was actually on duty (including periods aboard ship when the employee was on watch or was, at the direction of a superior officer, performing work or standing by, but not including off-duty periods which are provided pursuant to the employment agreement); or
(4) if such employee is employed in agriculture, not less than the minimum wage rate in effect under paragraph (1) after December 31, 1977.

(b) Additional applicability to employees pursuant to subsequent amendatory provisions
Every employer shall pay to each of his employees (other than an employee to whom subsection (a)(5) [1] applies) who in any workweek is engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or is employed in an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, and who in such workweek is brought within the purview of this section by the amendments made to this chapter by the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1966, title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 [20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.], or the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974, wages at the following rate: Effective after December 31, 1977, not less than the minimum wage rate in effect under subsection (a)(1).

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, [title II], § 2104(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1929
(d) Prohibition of sex discrimination
(1) No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except where such payment is made pursuant to (i) a seniority system; (ii) a merit system; (iii) a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or (iv) a differential based on any other factor other than sex: Provided, That an employer who is paying a wage rate differential in violation of this subsection shall not, in order to comply with the provisions of this subsection, reduce the wage rate of any employee.
(2) No labor organization, or its agents, representing employees of an employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall cause or attempt to cause such an employer to discriminate against an employee in violation of paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) For purposes of administration and enforcement, any amounts owing to any employee which have been withheld in violation of this subsection shall be deemed to be unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under this chapter.
(4) As used in this subsection, the term “labor organization” means any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work.

(e) Employees of employers providing contract services to United States
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 213 of this title (except subsections (a)(1) and (f) thereof), every employer providing any contract services (other than linen supply services) under a contract with the United States or any subcontract thereunder shall pay to each of his employees whose rate of pay is not governed by chapter 67 of title 41 or to whom subsection (a)(1) of this section is not applicable, wages at rates not less than the rates provided for in subsection (b) of this section.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 213 of this title (except subsections (a)(1) and (f) thereof) and the provisions of chapter 67 of title 41, every employer in an establishment providing linen supply services to the United States under a contract with the United States or any subcontract thereunder shall pay to each of his employees in such establishment wages at rates not less than those prescribed in subsection (b), except that if more than 50 per centum of the gross annual dollar volume of sales made or business done by such establishment is derived from providing such linen supply services under any such contracts or subcontracts, such employer shall pay to each of his employees in such establishment wages at rates not less than those prescribed in subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(f) Employees in domestic service. Any employee —
(1) who in any workweek is employed in domestic service in a household shall be paid wages at a rate not less than the wage rate in effect under subsection (b) unless such employee’s compensation for such service would not because of section 209(a)(6) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 409(a)(6)] constitute wages for the purposes of title II of such Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], or
(2) who in any workweek —
(A) is employed in domestic service in one or more households, and
(B) is so employed for more than 8 hours in the aggregate,

shall be paid wages for such employment in such workweek at a rate not less than the wage rate in effect under subsection (b).

(g) Newly hired employees who are less than 20 years old
(1) In lieu of the rate prescribed by subsection (a)(1), any employer may pay any employee of such employer, during the first 90 consecutive calendar days after such employee is initially employed by such employer, a wage which is not less than $4.25 an hour.
(2) In lieu of the rate prescribed by subsection (a)(1), the Governor of Puerto Rico, subject to the approval of the Financial Oversight and Management Board established pursuant to section 2121 of title 48, may designate a time period not to exceed four years during which employers in Puerto Rico may pay employees who are initially employed after June 30, 2016, a wage which is not less than the wage described in paragraph (1). Notwithstanding the time period designated, such wage shall not continue in effect after such Board terminates in accordance with section 2149 of title 48.
(3) No employer may take any action to displace employees (including partial displacements such as reduction in hours, wages, or employment benefits) for purposes of hiring individuals at the wage authorized in paragraph (1) or (2).
(4) Any employer who violates this subsection shall be considered to have violated section 215(a)(3) of this title.
(5) This subsection shall only apply to an employee who has not attained the age of 20 years, except in the case of the wage applicable in Puerto Rico, 25 years, until such time as the Board described in paragraph (2) terminates in accordance with section 2149 of title 48.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 6, 52 Stat. 1062; June 26, 1940, ch. 432, § 3(e), (f), 54 Stat. 616; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 6, 63 Stat. 912; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 867, § 3, 69 Stat. 711; Aug. 8, 1956, ch. 1035, § 2, 70 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 87–30, § 5, May 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 67; Pub. L. 88–38, § 3, June 10, 1963, 77 Stat. 56; Pub. L. 89–601, title III, §§ 301–305, Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 838, 839, 841; Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 2–4, 5(b), 7(b)(1), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 55, 56, 62; Pub. L. 95–151, § 2(a)–(d)(2), Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1245, 1246; Pub. L. 101–157, §§ 2, 4(b), Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 938, 940; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10208(d)(2)(B)(i), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2481; Pub. L. 104–188, [title II], §§ 2104(b), (c), 2105(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1928, 1929; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §§ 8102(a), 8103(c)(1)(B), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 188, 189; Pub. L. 114–187, title IV, § 403, June 30, 2016, 130 Stat. 586.)

29 USC §209 | ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES

For the purpose of any hearing or investigation provided for in this chapter, the provisions of sections 49 and 50 of title 15 (relating to the attendance of witnesses and the production of books, papers, and documents), are made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Administrator, the Secretary of Labor, and the industry committees. (June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 9, 52 Stat. 1065; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 1(b), eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7873, 60 Stat. 1095.)

29 USC §211 | COLLECTION OF DATA

(a) Investigations and inspections
The Administrator or his designated representatives may investigate and gather data regarding the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment in any industry subject to this chapter, and may enter and inspect such places and such records (and make such transcriptions thereof), question such employees, and investigate such facts, conditions, practices, or matters as he may deem necessary or appropriate to determine whether any person has violated any provision of this chapter, or which may aid in the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter. Except as provided in section 212 of this title and in subsection (b) of this section, the Administrator shall utilize the bureaus and divisions of the Department of Labor for all the investigations and inspections necessary under this section. Except as provided in section 212 of this title, the Administrator shall bring all actions under section 217 of this title to restrain violations of this chapter.

(b) State and local agencies and employees
With the consent and cooperation of State agencies charged with the administration of State labor laws, the Administrator and the Secretary of Labor may, for the purpose of carrying out their respective functions and duties under this chapter, utilize the services of State and local agencies and their employees and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, may reimburse such State and local agencies and their employees for services rendered for such purposes.

(c) Records
Every employer subject to any provision of this chapter or of any order issued under this chapter shall make, keep, and preserve such records of the persons employed by him and of the wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment maintained by him, and shall preserve such records for such periods of time, and shall make such reports therefrom to the Administrator as he shall prescribe by regulation or order as necessary or appropriate for the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter or the regulations or orders there­under. The employer of an employee who performs substitute work described in section 207(p)(3) of this title may not be required under this subsection to keep a record of the hours of the substitute work.

(d) Homework regulations
The Administrator is authorized to make such regulations and orders regulating, restricting, or prohibiting industrial homework as are necessary or appropriate to prevent the circumvention or evasion of and to safeguard the minimum wage rate prescribed in this chapter, and all existing regulations or orders of the Administrator relating to industrial homework are continued in full force and effect.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 11, 52 Stat. 1066; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 1(b), eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7873, 60 Stat. 1095; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 9, 63 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 99–150, § 3(c)(2), Nov. 13, 1985, 99 Stat. 789.)

29 USC §213 | EXEMPTIONS

(a) Minimum wage and maximum hour requirements
The provisions of sections 206 (except subsection (d) in the case of paragraph (1) of this subsection) and 207 of this title shall not apply with respect to —
(1) any employee employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity (including any employee employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teacher in elementary or secondary schools), or in the capacity of outside salesman (as such terms are defined and delimited from time to time by regulations of the Secretary, subject to the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, except that an employee of a retail or service establishment shall not be excluded from the definition of employee employed in a bona fide executive or administrative capacity because of the number of hours in his workweek which he devotes to activities not directly or closely related to the performance of executive or administrative activities, if less than 40 per centum of his hours worked in the workweek are devoted to such activities); or
(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–157, § 3(c)(1), Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 939.
(3) any employee employed by an establishment which is an amusement or recreational establishment, organized camp, or religious or non-profit educational conference center, if (A) it does not operate for more than seven months in any calendar year, or (B) during the preceding calendar year, its average receipts for any six months of such year were not more than 33⅓ per centum of its average receipts for the other six months of such year, except that the exemption from sections 206 and 207 of this title provided by this paragraph does not apply with respect to any employee of a private entity engaged in providing services or facilities (other than, in the case of the exemption from section 206 of this title, a private entity engaged in providing services and facilities directly related to skiing) in a national park or a national forest, or on land in the National Wildlife Refuge System, under a contract with the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture; or
(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–157, § 3(c)(1), Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 939.
(5) any employee employed in the catching, taking, propagating, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life, or in the first processing, canning or packing such marine products at sea as an incident to, or in conjunction with, such fishing operations, including the going to and returning from work and loading and unloading when performed by any such employee; or
(6) any employee employed in agriculture
(A) if such employee is employed by an employer who did not, during any calendar quarter during the preceding calendar year, use more than five hundred man-days of agricultural labor,
(B) if such employee is the parent, spouse, child, or other member of his employer’s immediate family,
(C) if such employee
(i) is employed as a hand harvest laborer and is paid on a piece rate basis in an operation which has been, and is customarily and generally recognized as having been, paid on a piece rate basis in the region of employment,
(ii) commutes daily from his permanent residence to the farm on which he is so employed, and
(iii) has been employed in agriculture less than thirteen weeks during the preceding calendar year,

(D) if such employee (other than an employee described in clause (C) of this subsection)
(i) is sixteen years of age or under and is employed as a hand harvest laborer, is paid on a piece rate basis in an operation which has been, and is customarily and generally recognized as having been, paid on a piece rate basis in the region of employment,
(ii) is employed on the same farm as his parent or person standing in the place of his parent, and
(iii) is paid at the same piece rate as employees over age sixteen are paid on the same farm, or

(E) if such employee is principally engaged in the range production of livestock; or

(7) any employee to the extent that such employee is exempted by regulations, order, or certificate of the Secretary issued under section 214 of this title; or
(8) any employee employed in connection with the publication of any weekly, semiweekly, or daily newspaper with a circulation of less than four thousand the major part of which circulation is within the county where published or counties contiguous thereto; or
(9) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, § 23(a)(1), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 69.
(10) any switchboard operator employed by an independently owned public telephone company which has not more than seven hundred and fifty stations; or
(11) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, § 10(a), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 63.
(12) any employee employed as a seaman on a vessel other than an American vessel; or
(13) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 9(b)(1), 23(b)(1), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 63, 69.
(14) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 9(b)(1), 23(b)(1), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 63, 69.
(15) any employee employed on a casual basis in domestic service employment to provide babysitting services or any employee employed in domestic service employment to provide companionship services for individuals who (because of age or infirmity) are unable to care for themselves (as such terms are defined and delimited by regulations of the Secretary); or
(16) a criminal investigator who is paid availability pay under section 5545a of title 5;
(17) any employee who is a computer systems analyst, computer programmer, software engineer, or other similarly skilled worker, whose primary duty is —
(A) the application of systems analysis techniques and procedures, including consulting with users, to determine hardware, software, or system functional specifications;
(B) the design, development, documentation, analysis, creation, testing, or modification of computer systems or programs, including prototypes, based on and related to user or system design specifications;
(C) the design, documentation, testing, creation, or modification of computer programs related to machine operating systems; or
(D) a combination of duties described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) the performance of which requires the same level of skills, and
who, in the case of an employee who is compensated on an hourly basis, is compensated at a rate of not less than $27.63 an hour; or

(18) any employee who is a border patrol agent, as defined in section 5550(a) of title 5; or
(19) any employee employed to play baseball who is compensated pursuant to a contract that provides for a weekly salary for services performed during the league’s championship season (but not spring training or the off season) at a rate that is not less than a weekly salary equal to the minimum wage under section 206(a) of this title for a workweek of 40 hours, irrespective of the number of hours the employee devotes to baseball related activities.

(b) Maximum hour requirements
The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply with respect to —
(1) any employee with respect to whom the Secretary of Transportation has power to establish qualifications and maximum hours of service pursuant to the provisions of section 31502 of title 49; or
(2) any employee of an employer engaged in the operation of a rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of title 49; or
(3) any employee of a carrier by air subject to the provisions of title II of the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 181 et seq.]; or
(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, § 11(c), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 64.
(5) any individual employed as an outside buyer of poultry, eggs, cream, or milk, in their raw or natural state; or
(6) any employee employed as a seaman; or
(7) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, § 21(b)(3), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 68.
(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–151, § 14(b), Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1252.
(9) any employee employed as an announcer, news editor, or chief engineer by a radio or television station the major studio of which is located (A) in a city or town of one hundred thousand population or less, according to the latest available decennial census figures as compiled by the Bureau of the Census, except where such city or town is part of a standard metropolitan statistical area, as defined and designated by the Office of Management and Budget, which has a total population in excess of one hundred thousand, or (B) in a city or town of twenty-five thousand population or less, which is part of such an area but is at least 40 airline miles from the principal city in such area; or
(10)
(A) any salesman, partsman, or mechanic primarily engaged in selling or servicing automobiles, trucks, or farm implements, if he is employed by a nonmanufacturing establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling such vehicles or implements to ultimate purchasers; or
(B) any salesman primarily engaged in selling trailers, boats, or aircraft, if he is employed by a nonmanufacturing establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling trailers, boats, or aircraft to ultimate purchasers; or

(11) any employee employed as a driver or driver’s helper making local deliveries, who is compensated for such employment on the basis of trip rates, or other delivery payment plan, if the Secretary shall find that such plan has the general purpose and effect of reducing hours worked by such employees to, or below, the maximum workweek applicable to them under section 207(a) of this title; or
(12) any employee employed in agriculture or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, or operated on a sharecrop basis, and which are used exclusively for supply and storing of water, at least 90 percent of which was ultimately delivered for agricultural purposes during the preceding calendar year; or
(13) any employee with respect to his employment in agriculture by a farmer, notwithstanding other employment of such employee in connection with livestock auction operations in which such farmer is engaged as an adjunct to the raising of livestock, either on his own account or in conjunction with other farmers, if such employee (A) is primarily employed during his workweek in agriculture by such farmer, and (B) is paid for his employment in connection with such livestock auction operations at a wage rate not less than that prescribed by section 206(a)(1) of this title; or
(14) any employee employed within the area of production (as defined by the Secretary) by an establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator, including such an establishment which sells products and services used in the operation of a farm, if no more than five employees are employed in the establishment in such operations; or
(15) any employee engaged in the processing of maple sap into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup; or
(16) any employee engaged (A) in the transportation and preparation for transportation of fruits or vegetables, whether or not performed by the farmer, from the farm to a place of first processing or first marketing within the same State, or (B) in transportation, whether or not performed by the farmer, between the farm and any point within the same State of persons employed or to be employed in the harvesting of fruits or vegetables; or
(17) any driver employed by an employer engaged in the business of operating taxicabs; or
(18) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 15(c), 16(b), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 65.
(19) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 15(c), 16(b), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 65.
(20) any employee of a public agency who in any workweek is employed in fire protection activities or any employee of a public agency who in any workweek is employed in law enforcement activities (including security personnel in correctional institutions), if the public agency employs during the workweek less than 5 employees in fire protection or law enforcement activities, as the case may be; or
(21) any employee who is employed in domestic service in a household and who resides in such household; or
(22) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–151, § 5, Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1249.
(23) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–259, § 10(b)(3), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 64.
(24) any employee who is employed with his spouse by a nonprofit educational institution to serve as the parents of children —
(A) who are orphans or one of whose natural parents is deceased, or
(B) who are enrolled in such institution and reside in residential facilities of the institution, while such children are in residence at such institution, if such employee and his spouse reside in such facilities, receive, without cost, board and lodging from such institution, and are together compensated, on a cash basis, at an annual rate of not less than $10,000; or

(25) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–151, §§ 6(a), 7(a), Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1249, 1250.
(26) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–151, §§ 6(a), 7(a), Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1249, 1250.
(27) any employee employed by an establishment which is a motion picture theater; or
(28) any employee employed in planting or tending trees, cruising, surveying, or felling timber, or in preparing or transporting logs or other forestry products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation terminal, if the number of employees employed by his employer in such forestry or lumbering operations does not exceed eight;
(29) any employee of an amusement or recreational establishment located in a national park or national forest or on land in the National Wildlife Refuge System if such employee
(A) is an employee of a private entity engaged in providing services or facilities in a national park or national forest, or on land in the National Wildlife Refuge System, under a contract with the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture, and
(B) receives compensation for employment in excess of fifty-six hours in any workweek at a rate not less than one and one-half times the regular rate at which he is employed; or

(30) a criminal investigator who is paid availability pay under section 5545a of title 5.

(c) Child labor requirements
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (4), the provisions of section 212 of this title relating to child labor shall not apply to any employee employed in agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is so employed, if such employee —
(A) is less than twelve years of age and
(i) is employed by his parent, or by a person standing in the place of his parent, on a farm owned or operated by such parent or person, or
(ii) is employed, with the consent of his parent or person standing in the place of his parent, on a farm, none of the employees of which are (because of subsection (a)(6)(A)) required to be paid at the wage rate prescribed by section 206(a)(5) [1] of this title,

(B) is twelve years or thirteen years of age and
(i) such employment is with the consent of his parent or person standing in the place of his parent, or
(ii) his parent or such person is employed on the same farm as such employee, or

(C) is fourteen years of age or older.

(2) The provisions of section 212 of this title relating to child labor shall apply to an employee below the age of sixteen employed in agriculture in an occupation that the Secretary of Labor finds and declares to be particularly hazardous for the employment of children below the age of sixteen, except where such employee is employed by his parent or by a person standing in the place of his parent on a farm owned or operated by such parent or person.
(3) The provisions of section 212 of this title relating to child labor shall not apply to any child employed as an actor or performer in motion pictures or theatrical productions, or in radio or television productions.
(4)
(A) An employer or group of employers may apply to the Secretary for a waiver of the application of section 212 of this title to the employment for not more than eight weeks in any calendar year of individuals who are less than twelve years of age, but not less than ten years of age, as hand harvest laborers in an agricultural operation which has been, and is customarily and generally recognized as being, paid on a piece rate basis in the region in which such individuals would be employed. The Secretary may not grant such a waiver unless he finds, based on objective data submitted by the applicant, that —
(i) the crop to be harvested is one with a particularly short harvesting season and the application of section 212 of this title would cause severe economic disruption in the industry of the employer or group of employers applying for the waiver;
(ii) the employment of the individuals to whom the waiver would apply would not be deleterious to their health or well-being;
(iii) the level and type of pesticides and other chemicals used would not have an adverse effect on the health or well-being of the individuals to whom the waiver would apply;
(iv) individuals age twelve and above are not available for such employment; and
(v) the industry of such employer or group of employers has traditionally and substantially employed individuals under twelve years of age without displacing substantial job opportunities for individuals over sixteen years of age.

(B) Any waiver granted by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall require that —
(i) the individuals employed under such waiver be employed outside of school hours for the school district where they are living while so employed;
(ii) such individuals while so employed commute daily from their permanent residence to the farm on which they are so employed; and
(iii) such individuals be employed under such waiver (I) for not more than eight weeks between June 1 and October 15 of any calendar year, and (II) in accordance with such other terms and conditions as the Secretary shall prescribe for such individuals’ protection.


(5)
(A) In the administration and enforcement of the child labor provisions of this chapter, employees who are 16 and 17 years of age shall be permitted to load materials into, but not operate or unload materials from, scrap paper balers and paper box compactors —
(i) that are safe for 16- and 17-year-old employees loading the scrap paper balers or paper box compactors; and
(ii) that cannot be operated while being loaded.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), scrap paper balers and paper box compactors shall be considered safe for 16- or 17-year-old employees to load only if —
(i)
(I) the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors meet the American National Standards Institute’s Standard ANSI Z245.5–1990 for scrap paper balers and Standard ANSI Z245.2–1992 for paper box compactors; or
(II) the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors meet an applicable standard that is adopted by the American National Standards Institute after August 6, 1996, and that is certified by the Secretary to be at least as protective of the safety of minors as the standard described in subclause (I);

(ii) the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors include an on-off switch incorporating a key-lock or other system and the control of the system is maintained in the custody of employees who are 18 years of age or older;
(iii) the on-off switch of the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors is maintained in an off position when the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors are not in operation; and
(iv) the employer of 16- and 17-year-old employees provides notice, and posts a notice, on the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors stating that —
(I) the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors meet the applicable standard described in clause (i);
(II) 16- and 17-year-old employees may only load the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors; and
(III) any employee under the age of 18 may not operate or unload the scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a standard that is adopted by the American National Standards Institute for scrap paper balers or paper box compactors and certified by the Secretary to be protective of the safety of minors under clause (i)(II).

(C)
(i) Employers shall prepare and submit to the Secretary reports —
(I) on any injury to an employee under the age of 18 that requires medical treatment (other than first aid) resulting from the employee’s contact with a scrap paper baler or paper box compactor during the loading, operation, or unloading of the baler or compactor; and
(II) on any fatality of an employee under the age of 18 resulting from the employee’s contact with a scrap paper baler or paper box compactor during the loading, operation, or unloading of the baler or compactor.

(ii) The reports described in clause (i) shall be used by the Secretary to determine whether or not the implementation of subparagraph (A) has had any effect on the safety of children.
(iii) The reports described in clause (i) shall provide —
(I) the name, telephone number, and address of the employer and the address of the place of employment where the incident occurred;
(II) the name, telephone number, and address of the employee who suffered an injury or death as a result of the incident;
(III) the date of the incident;
(IV) a description of the injury and a narrative describing how the incident occurred; and
(V) the name of the manufacturer and the model number of the scrap paper baler or paper box compactor involved in the incident.

(iv) The reports described in clause (i) shall be submitted to the Secretary promptly, but not later than 10 days after the date on which an incident relating to an injury or death occurred.
(v) The Secretary may not rely solely on the reports described in clause (i) as the basis for making a determination that any of the employers described in clause (i) has violated a provision of section 212 of this title relating to oppressive child labor or a regulation or order issued pursuant to section 212 of this title. The Secretary shall, prior to making such a determination, conduct an investigation and inspection in accordance with section 212(b) of this title.
(vi) The reporting requirements of this subparagraph shall expire 2 years after August 6, 1996.


(6) In the administration and enforcement of the child labor provisions of this chapter, employees who are under 17 years of age may not drive automobiles or trucks on public roadways. Employees who are 17 years of age may drive automobiles or trucks on public roadways only if —
(A) such driving is restricted to daylight hours;
(B) the employee holds a State license valid for the type of driving involved in the job performed and has no records of any moving violation at the time of hire;
(C) the employee has successfully completed a State approved driver education course;
(D) the automobile or truck is equipped with a seat belt for the driver and any passengers and the employee’s employer has instructed the employee that the seat belts must be used when driving the automobile or truck;
(E) the automobile or truck does not exceed 6,000 pounds of gross vehicle weight;
(F) such driving does not involve —
(i) the towing of vehicles;
(ii) route deliveries or route sales;
(iii) the transportation for hire of property, goods, or passengers;
(iv) urgent, time-sensitive deliveries;
(v) more than two trips away from the primary place of employment in any single day for the purpose of delivering goods of the employee’s employer to a customer (other than urgent, time-sensitive deliveries);
(vi) more than two trips away from the primary place of employment in any single day for the purpose of transporting passengers (other than employees of the employer);
(vii) transporting more than three passengers (including employees of the employer); or
(viii) driving beyond a 30 mile radius from the employee’s place of employment; and

(G) such driving is only occasional and incidental to the employee’s employment.
For purposes of subparagraph (G), the term “occasional and incidental” is no more than one-third of an employee’s worktime in any workday and no more than 20 percent of an employee’s worktime in any workweek.

(7)
(A)
(i) Subject to subparagraph (B), in the administration and enforcement of the child labor provisions of this chapter, it shall not be considered oppressive child labor for a new entrant into the workforce to be employed inside or outside places of business where machinery is used to process wood products.
(ii) In this paragraph, the term “new entrant into the workforce” means an individual who —
(I) is under the age of 18 and at least the age of 14, and
(II) by statute or judicial order is exempt from compulsory school attendance beyond the eighth grade.


(B) The employment of a new entrant into the workforce under subparagraph (A) shall be permitted —
(i) if the entrant is supervised by an adult relative of the entrant or is supervised by an adult member of the same religious sect or division as the entrant;
(ii) if the entrant does not operate or assist in the operation of power-driven woodworking machines;
(iii) if the entrant is protected from wood particles or other flying debris within the workplace by a barrier appropriate to the potential hazard of such wood particles or flying debris or by maintaining a sufficient distance from machinery in operation; and
(iv) if the entrant is required to use personal protective equipment to prevent exposure to excessive levels of noise and saw dust.



(d) Delivery of newspapers and wreathmaking
The provisions of sections 206, 207, and 212 of this title shall not apply with respect to any employee engaged in the delivery of newspapers to the consumer or to any homeworker engaged in the making of wreaths composed principally of natural holly, pine, cedar, or other evergreens (including the harvesting of the evergreens or other forest products used in making such wreaths).

(e) Maximum hour requirements and minimum wage employees
The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply with respect to employees for whom the Secretary of Labor is authorized to establish minimum wage rates as provided in section 206(a)(3) 1 of this title, except with respect to employees for whom such rates are in effect; and with respect to such employees the Secretary may make rules and regulations providing reasonable limitations and allowing reasonable variations, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all of the provisions of section 207 of this title if he shall find, after a public hearing on the matter, and taking into account the factors set forth in section 206(a)(3) 1 of this title, that economic conditions warrant such action.

(f) Employment in foreign countries and certain United States territories
The provisions of sections 206, 207, 211, and 212 of this title shall not apply with respect to any employee whose services during the workweek are performed in a workplace within a foreign country or within territory under the jurisdiction of the United States other than the following: a State of the United States; the District of Columbia; Puerto Rico; the Virgin Islands; outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462) [43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.]; American Samoa; Guam; Wake Island; Eniwetok Atoll; Kwajalein Atoll; and Johnston Island.

(g) Certain employment in retail or service establishments, agriculture
The exemption from section 206 of this title provided by paragraph (6) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any employee employed by an establishment (1) which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, another establishment the activities of which are not related for a common business purpose to, but materially support the activities of the establishment employing such employee; and (2) whose annual gross volume of sales made or business done, when combined with the annual gross volume of sales made or business done by each establishment which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the establishment employing such employee, exceeds $10,000,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated).

(h) Maximum hour requirement: fourteen workweek limitation
The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply for a period or periods of not more than fourteen workweeks in the aggregate in any calendar year to any employee who —
(1) is employed by such employer —
(A) exclusively to provide services necessary and incidental to the ginning of cotton in an establishment primarily engaged in the ginning of cotton;
(B) exclusively to provide services necessary and incidental to the receiving, handling, and storing of raw cotton and the compressing of raw cotton when performed at a cotton warehouse or compress-warehouse facility, other than one operated in conjunction with a cotton mill, primarily engaged in storing and compressing;
(C) exclusively to provide services necessary and incidental to the receiving, handling, storing, and processing of cottonseed in an establishment primarily engaged in the receiving, handling, storing, and processing of cottonseed; or
(D) exclusively to provide services necessary and incidental to the processing of sugar cane or sugar beets in an establishment primarily engaged in the processing of sugar cane or sugar beets; and

(2) receives for —
(A) such employment by such employer which is in excess of ten hours in any workday, and
(B) such employment by such employer which is in excess of forty-eight hours in any workweek,
compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times the regular rate at which he is employed.

Any employer who receives an exemption under this subsection shall not be eligible for any other exemption under this section or section 207 of this title.



(i) Cotton ginning
The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply for a period or periods of not more than fourteen workweeks in the aggregate in any period of fifty-two consecutive weeks to any employee who —
(1) is engaged in the ginning of cotton for market in any place of employment located in a county where cotton is grown in commercial quantities; and
(2) receives for any such employment during such workweeks —
(A) in excess of ten hours in any workday, and
(B) in excess of forty-eight hours in any workweek,
compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times the regular rate at which he is employed. No week included in any fifty-two week period for purposes of the preceding sentence may be included for such purposes in any other fifty-two week period.


(j) Processing of sugar beets, sugar beet molasses, or sugar cane
The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply for a period or periods of not more than fourteen workweeks in the aggregate in any period of fifty-two consecutive weeks to any employee who —
(1) is engaged in the processing of sugar beets, sugar beet molasses, or sugar cane into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup; and
(2) receives for any such employment during such workweeks —
(A) in excess of ten hours in any workday, and
(B) in excess of forty-eight hours in any workweek,
compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times the regular rate at which he is employed. No week included in any fifty-two week period for purposes of the preceding sentence may be included for such purposes in any other fifty-two week period.


(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 13, 52 Stat. 1067; Aug. 9, 1939, ch. 605, 53 Stat. 1266; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 11, 63 Stat. 917; Aug. 8, 1956, ch. 1035, § 3, 70 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 85–231, § 1(1), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 86–624, § 21(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 87–30, §§ 9, 10, May 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 71, 74; Pub. L. 89–601, title II, §§ 201–204(a), (b), 205–212(a), 213, 214, 215(b), (c), Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 833–838; Pub. L. 89–670, § 8(e), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 943; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 102, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2085; Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 906(b)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 93–259, §§ 6(c)(2), 7(b)(3), (4), 8, 9(b), 10, 11, 12(a), 13(a)–(d), 14–18, 20(a)–(c), 21(b), 22, 23, 25(b), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 61–69, 72; Pub. L. 95–151, §§ 4–8, 9(d), 11, 14, Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1249, 1250–1252; Pub. L. 96–70, title I, § 1225(a), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 468; Pub. L. 101–157, § 3(c), Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 939; Pub. L. 103–329, title VI, § 633(d), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2428; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, § 340, Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 104–174, § 1, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1553; Pub. L. 104–188, [title II], § 2105(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1929; Pub. L. 105–78, title I, § 105, Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1477; Pub. L. 105–334, § 2(a), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3137; Pub. L. 108–199, div. E, title I, § 108, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 113–277, § 2(g)(2), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3005; Pub. L. 115–141, div. S, title II, § 201(a), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1126.)

29 USC §215 | PROHIBITED ACTS; PRIMA FACIE EVIDENCE

(a) After the expiration of one hundred and twenty days from June 25, 1938, it shall be unlawful for any person —
(1) to transport, offer for transportation, ship, deliver, or sell in commerce, or to ship, deliver, or sell with knowledge that shipment or delivery or sale thereof in commerce is intended, any goods in the production of which any employee was employed in violation of section 206 or section 207 of this title, or in violation of any regulation or order of the Secretary issued under section 214 of this title; except that no provision of this chapter shall impose any liability upon any common carrier for the transportation in commerce in the regular course of its business of any goods not produced by such common carrier, and no provision of this chapter shall excuse any common carrier from its obligation to accept any goods for transportation; and except that any such transportation, offer, shipment, delivery, or sale of such goods by a purchaser who acquired them in good faith in reliance on written assurance from the producer that the goods were produced in compliance with the requirements of this chapter, and who acquired such goods for value without notice of any such violation, shall not be deemed unlawful;
(2) to violate any of the provisions of section 206 or section 207 of this title, or any of the provisions of any regulation or order of the Secretary issued under section 214 of this title;
(3) to discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed any complaint or instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under or related to this chapter, or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or has served or is about to serve on an industry committee;
(4) to violate any of the provisions of section 212 of this title;
(5) to violate any of the provisions of section 211(c) of this title, or any regulation or order made or continued in effect under the provisions of section 211(d) of this title, or to make any statement, report, or record filed or kept pursuant to the provisions of such section or of any regulation or order thereunder, knowing such statement, report, or record to be false in a material respect.

(b) For the purposes of subsection (a)(1) proof that any employee was employed in any place of employment where goods shipped or sold in commerce were produced, within ninety days prior to the removal of the goods from such place of employment, shall be prima facie evidence that such employee was engaged in the production of such goods.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 15, 52 Stat. 1068; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 13, 63 Stat. 919; 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 6, §§ 1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263.)

29 USC §216 | PENALTIES

(a) Fines and imprisonment
Any person who willfully violates any of the provisions of section 215 of this title shall upon conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment for not more than six months, or both. No person shall be imprisoned under this subsection except for an offense committed after the conviction of such person for a prior offense under this subsection.

(b) Damages; right of action; attorney’s fees and costs; termination of right of action
Any employer who violates the provisions of section 206 or section 207 of this title shall be liable to the employee or employees affected in the amount of their unpaid minimum wages, or their unpaid overtime compensation, as the case may be, and in an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. Any employer who violates the provisions of section 215(a)(3) of this title shall be liable for such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to effectuate the purposes of section 215(a)(3) of this title, including without limitation employment, reinstatement, promotion, and the payment of wages lost and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. Any employer who violates section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title shall be liable to the employee or employees affected in the amount of the sum of any tip credit taken by the employer and all such tips unlawfully kept by the employer, and in an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. An action to recover the liability prescribed in the preceding sentences may be maintained against any employer (including a public agency) in any Federal or State court of competent jurisdiction by any one or more employees for and in behalf of himself or themselves and other employees similarly situated. No employee shall be a party plaintiff to any such action unless he gives his consent in writing to become such a party and such consent is filed in the court in which such action is brought. The court in such action shall, in addition to any judgment awarded to the plaintiff or plaintiffs, allow a reasonable attorney’s fee to be paid by the defendant, and costs of the action. The right provided by this subsection to bring an action by or on behalf of any employee, and the right of any employee to become a party plaintiff to any such action, shall terminate upon the filing of a complaint by the Secretary of Labor in an action under section 217 of this title in which (1) restraint is sought of any further delay in the payment of unpaid minimum wages, or the amount of unpaid overtime compensation, as the case may be, owing to such employee under section 206 or section 207 of this title by an employer liable therefor under the provisions of this subsection or (2) legal or equitable relief is sought as a result of alleged violations of section 215(a)(3) of this title.

(c) Payment of wages and compensation; waiver of claims; actions by the Secretary; limitation of actions
The Secretary is authorized to supervise the payment of the unpaid minimum wages or the unpaid overtime compensation owing to any employee or employees under section 206 or section 207 of this title, and the agreement of any employee to accept such payment shall upon payment in full constitute a waiver by such employee of any right he may have under subsection (b) of this section to such unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. The Secretary may bring an action in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover the amount of unpaid minimum wages or overtime compensation and an equal amount as liquidated damages. The right provided by subsection (b) to bring an action by or on behalf of any employee to recover the liability specified in the first sentence of such subsection and of any employee to become a party plaintiff to any such action shall terminate upon the filing of a complaint by the Secretary in an action under this subsection in which a recovery is sought of unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under sections 206 and 207 of this title or liquidated or other damages provided by this subsection owing to such employee by an employer liable under the provisions of subsection (b), unless such action is dismissed without prejudice on motion of the Secretary. Any sums thus recovered by the Secretary of Labor on behalf of an employee pursuant to this subsection shall be held in a special deposit account and shall be paid, on order of the Secretary of Labor, directly to the employee or employees affected. Any such sums not paid to an employee because of inability to do so within a period of three years shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts. In determining when an action is commenced by the Secretary of Labor under this subsection for the purposes of the statutes of limitations provided in section 6(a) of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 [29 U.S.C. 255(a)], it shall be considered to be commenced in the case of any individual claimant on the date when the complaint is filed if he is specifically named as a party plaintiff in the complaint, or if his name did not so appear, on the subsequent date on which his name is added as a party plaintiff in such action. The authority and requirements described in this subsection shall apply with respect to a violation of section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title, as appropriate, and the employer shall be liable for the amount of the sum of any tip credit taken by the employer and all such tips unlawfully kept by the employer, and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages.

(d) Savings provisions
In any action or proceeding commenced prior to, on, or after August 8, 1956, no employer shall be subject to any liability or punishment under this chapter or the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 [29 U.S.C. 251 et seq.] on account of his failure to comply with any provision or provisions of this chapter or such Act (1) with respect to work heretofore or hereafter performed in a workplace to which the exemption in section 213(f) of this title is applicable, (2) with respect to work performed in Guam, the Canal Zone or Wake Island before the effective date of this amendment of subsection (d), or (3) with respect to work performed in a possession named in section 206(a)(3) [1] of this title at any time prior to the establishment by the Secretary, as provided therein, of a minimum wage rate applicable to such work.

(e) Civil penalties for child labor violations
(1)
(A) Any person who violates the provisions of sections [2] 212 or 213(c) of this title, relating to child labor, or any regulation issued pursuant to such sections, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed —
(i) $11,000 for each employee who was the subject of such a violation; or
(ii) $50,000 with regard to each such violation that causes the death or serious injury of any employee under the age of 18 years, which penalty may be doubled where the violation is a repeated or willful violation.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “serious injury” means —
(i) permanent loss or substantial impairment of one of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, tactile sensation);
(ii) permanent loss or substantial impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, including the loss of all or part of an arm, leg, foot, hand or other body part; or
(iii) permanent paralysis or substantial impairment that causes loss of movement or mobility of an arm, leg, foot, hand or other body part.


(2) Any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 206 or 207 of this title, relating to wages, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $1,100 for each such violation. Any person who violates section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $1,100 for each such violation, as the Secretary determines appropriate, in addition to being liable to the employee or employees affected for all tips unlawfully kept, and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages, as described in subsection (b).
(3) In determining the amount of any penalty under this subsection, the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the person charged and the gravity of the violation shall be considered. The amount of any penalty under this subsection, when finally determined, may be —
(A) deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged;
(B) recovered in a civil action brought by the Secretary in any court of competent jurisdiction, in which litigation the Secretary shall be represented by the Solicitor of Labor; or
(C) ordered by the court, in an action brought for a violation of section 215(a)(4) of this title or a repeated or willful violation of section 215(a)(2) of this title, to be paid to the Secretary.

(4) Any administrative determination by the Secretary of the amount of any penalty under this subsection shall be final, unless within 15 days after receipt of notice thereof by certified mail the person charged with the violation takes exception to the determination that the violations for which the penalty is imposed occurred, in which event final determination of the penalty shall be made in an administrative proceeding after opportunity for hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5 and regulations to be promulgated by the Secretary.
(5) Except for civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 of this title, sums collected as penalties pursuant to this section shall be applied toward reimbursement of the costs of determining the violations and assessing and collecting such penalties, in accordance with the provision of section 9a of this title. Civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 of this title shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 16, 52 Stat. 1069; May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 5(a), 61 Stat. 87; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 14, 63 Stat. 919; 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 6, §§ 1, 2, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263; Aug. 8, 1956, ch. 1035, § 4, 70 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 85–231, § 1(2), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 87–30, § 12(a), May 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 74; Pub. L. 89–601, title VI, § 601(a), Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 844; Pub. L. 93–259, §§6(d)(1), 25(c), 26, Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 61, 72, 73; Pub. L. 95–151, § 10, Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 101–157, § 9, Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 101–508, title III, § 3103, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–29; Pub. L. 104–174, § 2, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1554; Pub. L. 110–233, title III, § 302(a), May 21, 2008, 122 Stat. 920; Pub. L. 115–141, div. S, title XII, § 1201(b), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1148.)

29 USC §217 | INJUNCTION PROCEEDINGS

The district courts, together with the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, and the District Court of Guam shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown, to restrain violations of section 215 of this title, including in the case of violations of section 215(a)(2) of this title the restraint of any withholding of payment of minimum wages or overtime compensation found by the court to be due to employees under this chapter (except sums which employees are barred from recovering, at the time of the commencement of the action to restrain the violations, by virtue of the provisions of section 255 of this title). (June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 17, 52 Stat. 1069; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 15, 63 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 85–231, § 1(3), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 86–624, § 21(c), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 87–30, § 12(b), May 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 74.)

29 USC §218 | RELATION TO OTHER LAWS

(a) No provision of this chapter or of any order thereunder shall excuse noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance establishing a minimum wage higher than the minimum wage established under this chapter or a maximum work week lower than the maximum workweek established under this chapter, and no provision of this chapter relating to the employment of child labor shall justify noncompliance with any Federal or State law or municipal ordinance establishing a higher standard than the standard established under this chapter. No provision of this chapter shall justify any employer in reducing a wage paid by him which is in excess of the applicable minimum wage under this chapter, or justify any employer in increasing hours of employment maintained by him which are shorter than the maximum hours applicable under this chapter.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter (other than section 213(f) of this title) or any other law —
(1) any Federal employee in the Canal Zone engaged in employment of the kind described in section 5102(c)(7) of title 5, or
(2) any employee employed in a nonappropriated fund instrumentality under the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces,
shall have his basic compensation fixed or adjusted at a wage rate that is not less than the appropriate wage rate provided for in section 206(a)(1) of this title (except that the wage rate provided for in section 206(b) of this title shall apply to any employee who performed services during the workweek in a work place within the Canal Zone), and shall have his overtime compensation set at an hourly rate not less than the overtime rate provided for in section 207(a)(1) of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 18, 52 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 89–601, title III, § 306, Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 90–83, § 8, Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 222.)

29 USC §219 | SEPARABILITY

If any provision of this chapter or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby. (June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 19, 52 Stat. 1069.)

29 USC §255 | STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

Any action commenced on or after May 14, 1947, to enforce any cause of action for unpaid minimum wages, unpaid overtime compensation, or liquidated damages, under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act, or the Bacon-Davis Act [1]  —
(a) if the cause of action accrues on or after May 14, 1947 — may be commenced within two years after the cause of action accrued, and every such action shall be forever barred unless commenced within two years after the cause of action accrued, except that a cause of action arising out of a willful violation may be commenced within three years after the cause of action accrued;
(b) if the cause of action accrued prior to May 14, 1947 — may be commenced within whichever of the following periods is the shorter: (1) two years after the cause of action accrued, or (2) the period prescribed by the applicable State statute of limitations; and, except as provided in paragraph (c), every such action shall be forever barred unless commenced within the shorter of such two periods;
(c) if the cause of action accrued prior to May 14, 1947, the action shall not be barred by paragraph (b) if it is commenced within one hundred and twenty days after May 14, 1947 unless at the time commenced it is barred by an applicable State statute of limitations;
(d) with respect to any cause of action brought under section 216(b) of this title against a State or a political subdivision of a State in a district court of the United States on or before April 18, 1973, the running of the statutory periods of limitation shall be deemed suspended during the period beginning with the commencement of any such action and ending one hundred and eighty days after the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974, except that such suspension shall not be applicable if in such action judgment has been entered for the defendant on the grounds other than State immunity from Federal jurisdiction.
(May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 6, 61 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 89–601, title VI, § 601(b), Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 844; Pub. L. 93–259, § 6(d)(2)(A), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 61.)

29 USC §256 | DETERMINATION OF COMMENCEMENT OF FUTURE ACTIONS

In determining when an action is commenced for the purposes of section 255 of this title, an action commenced on or after May 14, 1947 under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act, or the Bacon-Davis Act,[1] shall be considered to be commenced on the date when the complaint is filed; except that in the case of a collective or class action instituted under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, or the Bacon-Davis Act,[1] it shall be considered to be commenced in the case of any individual claimant —
(a) on the date when the complaint is filed, if he is specifically named as a party plaintiff in the complaint and his written consent to become a party plaintiff is filed on such date in the court in which the action is brought; or
(b) if such written consent was not so filed or if his name did not so appear — on the subsequent date on which such written consent is filed in the court in which the action was commenced.
(May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 7, 61 Stat. 88.)

29 USC §259 | RELIANCE IN FUTURE ON ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS, ETC.

(a) In any action or proceeding based on any act or omission on or after May 14, 1947, no employer shall be subject to any liability or punishment for or on account of the failure of the employer to pay minimum wages or overtime compensation under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], the Walsh-Healey Act, or the Bacon-Davis Act,[1] if he pleads and proves that the act or omission complained of was in good faith in conformity with and in reliance on any written administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, or interpretation, of the agency of the United States specified in subsection (b) of this section, or any administrative practice or enforcement policy of such agency with respect to the class of employers to which he belonged. Such a defense, if established, shall be a bar to the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that after such act or omission, such administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, interpretation, practice, or enforcement policy is modified or rescinded or is determined by judicial authority to be invalid or of no legal effect.
(b) The agency referred to in subsection (a) shall be —
(1) in the case of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.] — the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor;
(2) in the case of the Walsh-Healey Act — the Secretary of Labor, or any Federal officer utilized by him in the administration of such Act; and
(3) in the case of the Bacon-Davis Act 1 — the Secretary of Labor.

(May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 10, 61 Stat. 89.)

29 USC §260 | LIQUIDATED DAMAGES

In any action commenced prior to or on or after May 14, 1947 to recover unpaid minimum wages, unpaid overtime compensation, or liquidated damages, under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], if the employer shows to the satisfaction of the court that the act or omission giving rise to such action was in good faith and that he had reasonable grounds for believing that his act or omission was not a violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, the court may, in its sound discretion, award no liquidated damages or award any amount thereof not to exceed the amount specified in section 216 of this title. (May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 11, 61 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 93–259, § 6(d)(2)(B), Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 62.)

29 USC §262 | DEFINITIONS

(a) When the terms “employer”, “employee”, and “wage” are used in this chapter in relation to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.], they shall have the same meaning as when used in such Act of 1938.
(b) When the term “employer” is used in this chapter in relation to the Walsh-Healey Act or Bacon-Davis Act [1] it shall mean the contractor or subcontractor covered by such Act.
(c) When the term “employee” is used in this chapter in relation to the Walsh-Healey Act or the Bacon-Davis Act1 it shall mean any individual employed by the contractor or subcontractor covered by such Act in the performance of his contract or subcontract.
(d) The term “Wash-Healey Act” [2] means the Act entitled “An Act to provide conditions for the purchase of supplies and the making of contracts by the United States, and for other purposes”, approved June 30, 1936 (49 Stat. 2036), as amended;1 and the term “Bacon-Davis Act” means the Act entitled “An Act to amend the Act approved March 3, 1931, relating to the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors on public buildings”, approved August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. 1011), as amended.1
(e) As used in section 255 of this title the term “State” means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States.
(May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 13, 61 Stat. 90.)

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