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Pattern Jury Instructions
3rd Circuit Court of Appeals
Section I


Now that you have been sworn, I have the following preliminary instructions for your guidance as jurors in this case.

You will hear the evidence, decide what the facts are, and then apply those facts to the law that I will give to you.

You and only you will be the judges of the facts. You will have to decide what happened. I play no part in judging the facts. You should not take anything I may say or do during the trial as indicating what I think of the evidence or what your verdict should be. My role is to be the judge of the law. I make whatever legal decisions have to be made during the course of the trial, and I will explain to you the legal principles that must guide you in your decisions. You must follow that law whether you agree with it or not.

COMMENT This instruction is derived from the Bench Book for United States District Court Judges (Federal Judicial Center), and tracks similar pattern instructions in the First Circuit (Criminal 1.01) and Eleventh Circuit (2.1). See also Fifth Circuit 1.1. For other versions of this instruction, see Sixth Circuit (Criminal) 1.02; Eighth Circuit 1.01.

The instruction can be modified to be given at the end of the case when the court is about to give final instructions on the applicable law. See, e.g., Seventh Circuit (Criminal) 1.01:
Members of the jury, you have seen and heard all the evidence and the arguments of the attorneys. Now I will instruct you on the law. You have two duties as a jury. Your first duty is to decide the facts from the evidence in the case. This is your job, and yours alone. Your second duty is to apply the law that I give you to the facts. You must follow these instructions, even if you disagree with them. Each of the instructions is important, and you must follow all of them. Perform these duties fairly and impartially. Do not allow sympathy, prejudice, fear, or public opinion to influence you. [You should not be influenced by any person's race, color, religion, national ancestry, or sex.] Nothing I say now, and nothing I said or did during the trial, is meant to indicate any opinion on my part about what the facts are or about what your verdict should be.
See also Ninth Circuit 1.1A - 1.1C (instructions on duty of jurors).

(Last Updated October 2017)


In this case, [plaintiff] claims that [describe claims]; [defendant] denies those claims [and also contends that [describe counterclaims or affirmative defenses]]. I will give you detailed instructions on the law at the end of the case, and those instructions will control your deliberations and decision. But in order to help you follow the evidence, I will now give you a brief summary of the elements that [plaintiff] must prove to make [his/her/its] case:

[Summarize elements of the applicable cause of action].

COMMENT Referring to the parties by their names, rather than solely as “Plaintiff” and “Defendant,” can improve jurors’ comprehension. In these instructions, bracketed references to “[plaintiff]” or “[defendant]” indicate places where the name of the party should be inserted.

This instruction is derived from the pattern instruction used by United States District Courts in Camden. It is similar to pattern instructions in the Eighth Circuit (1.01) and the Ninth Circuit (1.2).

This preliminary instruction concerning the elements in the case can be used together with the applicable substantive instruction for a particular cause of action. It is not necessary at the outset, however, to give a detailed instruction as to the applicable elements, especially in a complex case. But a brief description of the claims, defenses and counterclaims, if any, is likely to aid jury comprehension.

This instruction can be modified to be given at the beginning of voir dire, or in light of what was given at the beginning of voir dire.

(Last Updated October 2017)


Now, a few words about your conduct as jurors.

First, I instruct you that during the trial and until you have heard all of the evidence and retired to the jury room to deliberate, you are not to discuss the case with anyone, not even among yourselves. If anyone should try to talk to you about the case, including a fellow juror, bring it to my attention promptly. There are good reasons for this ban on discussions, the most important being the need for you to keep an open mind throughout the presentation of evidence. I know that many of you use cell phones, smart phones [like Blackberries and iPhones], and other portable electronic devices; laptops, netbooks, and other computers both portable and fixed; and other tools of technology, to access the internet and to communicate with others. You also must not talk to anyone about this case or use these tools to communicate electronically with anyone about the case. This includes your family and friends. You may not communicate orally with anyone about the case on your cell phone, smart phone, or portable or fixed computer or device of any kind; or use these devices to communicate electronically by messages or postings of any kind including e-mail, instant messages, text messages, text or instant messaging services [such as Twitter], or through any blog, website, internet chat room, or by way of any other social networking websites or services [including Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, and YouTube].

If any lawyer, party, or witness does not speak to you when you pass in the hall, ride the elevator, or the like, remember it is because they are not supposed to talk or visit with you, either. [That is why you are asked to wear your juror tags. It shows that you are someone who is not to be approached in any way.]

Second, do not read or listen to anything related to this case that is not admitted into evidence. By that I mean, if there is a newspaper article or radio or television report relating to this case, do not read the article or watch or listen to the report. In addition, do not try to do any independent research or investigation on your own on matters relating to the case or this type of case. Do not do any research on the internet, for example. You are to decide the case upon the evidence presented at trial. In other words, you should not consult dictionaries or reference materials, search the internet, websites, blogs, or use any other electronic tools to obtain information about this case or to help you decide the case. Please do not try to find out information from any source outside the confines of this courtroom.

Again, do not reach any conclusion on the claims [or defenses] until all of the evidence is in. Keep an open mind until you start your deliberations at the end of the case.

[Finally, if any member of the jury has a friend or family member who is in attendance at this public trial, that visitor must first register with my Clerk because special rules will govern their attendance. You may not discuss any aspect of this trial with the visitor, nor may you permit the visitor to discuss it with you.]

COMMENT This instruction is adapted from the pattern instruction used by United States District Courts in Delaware. For variations on this instruction, see First Circuit (Criminal) 1.07; Eighth Circuit 1.05; Ninth Circuit 1.12. See also Montana 1.4 (concluding the instruction with a warning that “[f]ailure to observe these precautions might require the retrial of this case, which would result in a long delay, considerable expense to the courts and the parties and a waste of your time and effort.”). Portions of the instruction are drawn from Proposed Model Jury Instructions on the Use of Electronic Technology to Conduct Research on or Communicate about a Case, prepared by the Judicial Conference Committee on Court Administration and Case Management (CACM) in December 2009. See United States v. Fumo, 655 F.3d 288, 305 (3d Cir. 2011) (“We enthusiastically endorse [the CACM] instructions and strongly encourage district courts to routinely incorporate them or similar language into their own instructions.”). CACM released an updated version of the model instructions in June 2012 (the updated model is available at http://news.uscourts.gov/revised-jury-instructionshope-deter-juror-use-social-media-during-trial). Obviously, the relevant technologies will evolve over time; users of these instructions should insert a list of current examples in the appropriate place in the instructions.

The court should give this instruction on jury conduct after the jurors are sworn and before opening statements. Depending on the circumstances, it may be useful to give this instruction, or some part of it, during the trial as well. See Wright & Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure § 486 (suggesting that there may be occasion during the trial and at the close of the evidence to remind the jury about how it should conduct itself).

The Committee considered whether to delete the instruction that jurors are not to talk among themselves about the case until deliberations. The Committee notes that Arizona permits pre-deliberation discussions among jurors. But the Third Circuit has declared as follows:
“It is fundamental that every litigant who is entitled to trial by jury is entitled to an impartial jury, free to the furthest extent practicable from extraneous influences that may subvert the fact-finding process.” Waldorf v. Shuta, 3 F.3d 705, 709 (3d Cir. 1993). Partly to ensure that this right is upheld, “it [has been] a generally accepted principle of trial administration that jurors must not engage in discussions of a case before they have heard both the evidence and the court’s legal instructions and have begun formally deliberating as a collective body.” [United States v.] Resko, 3 F.3d [684] at 688 [(3d Cir. 1993)].
United States v. Bertoli, 40 F.3d 1384, 1393 (3d Cir. 1994).

Premature deliberations present a number of concerns, the most important being that jurors who discuss the case among themselves may harden their positions before all of the evidence is presented and the jury is instructed. Moreover, “[o]nce a juror has expressed views on a particular issue, that juror has a ‘stake’ in the expressed views and may give undue weight to additional evidence that supports, rather than undercuts, his or her view.” Id. The Committee therefore concluded that the court should instruct the jurors to refrain from discussing the case among themselves before deliberations.

(Last Updated October 2017)


During the trial it may be necessary for me to talk with the lawyers out of your hearing by having a bench conference. If that happens, please be patient.

We are not trying to keep important information from you. These conferences are necessary for me to fulfill my responsibility, which is to be sure that evidence is presented to you correctly under the law.

We will, of course, do what we can to keep the number and length of these conferences to a minimum. [While we meet, I will invite you to stand up and stretch and take a short break or perhaps even call a recess if it is a lengthy issue, and permit you to go downstairs for a break.]

I may not always grant an attorney's request for a conference. Do not consider my granting or denying a request for a conference as any indication of my opinion of the case or of what your verdict should be.

COMMENT This instruction is derived from First Circuit (Criminal) 1.05; 8th Circuit 1.03; and former Ninth Circuit 2.2. Cf. Ninth Circuit 1.18. For a shortened version of this instruction, see Fifth Circuit 2.7:
At times during the trial it may be necessary for me to talk with the lawyers here at the bench out of your hearing, or by calling a recess. We meet because often during a trial something comes up that doesn't involve the jury.

(Last Updated October 2017)


The evidence from which you are to find the facts consists of the following:

1. The testimony of the witnesses;

2. Documents and other things received as exhibits;

3. Any facts that are stipulated -- that is, formally agreed to by the parties; and

[4. Any facts that are judicially noticed -- that is, facts I say you must accept as true even without other evidence.]

The following things are not evidence:

1. Statements, arguments, and questions of the lawyers for the parties in this case;

2. Objections by lawyers.

3. Any testimony I tell you to disregard; and

4. Anything you may see or hear about this case outside the courtroom.

You must make your decision based only on the evidence that you see and hear in court. Do not let rumors, suspicions, or anything else that you may see or hear outside of court influence your decision in any way.

You should use your common sense in weighing the evidence. Consider it in light of your everyday experience with people and events, and give it whatever weight you believe it deserves. If your experience tells you that certain evidence reasonably leads to a conclusion, you are free to reach that conclusion.

There are rules that control what can be received into evidence. When a lawyer asks a question or offers an exhibit into evidence, and a lawyer on the other side thinks that it is not permitted by the rules of evidence, that lawyer may object. This simply means that the lawyer is requesting that I make a decision on a particular rule of evidence. You should not be influenced by the fact that an objection is made. Objections to questions are not evidence. Lawyers have an obligation to their clients to make objections when they believe that evidence being offered is improper under the rules of evidence. You should not be influenced by the objection or by the court’s ruling on it. If the objection is sustained, ignore the question. If it is overruled, treat the answer like any other. If you are instructed that some item of evidence is received for a limited purpose only, you must follow that instruction.

Also, certain testimony or other evidence may be ordered struck from the record and you will be instructed to disregard this evidence. Do not consider any testimony or other evidence that gets struck or excluded. Do not speculate about what a witness might have said or what an exhibit might have shown.

COMMENT This instruction is derived from the Bench Book for United States District Judges (Section 6.05); First Circuit (Criminal) 1.05; Eighth Circuit 1.02; and former Ninth Circuit 1.4. Cf. Ninth Circuit 1.7. The third and fourth paragraphs of the instruction are specifically derived from the instruction used by District Judges in Delaware.

This instruction is to be given at the outset of the case, as well as, or in place of, an instruction at the end of the case. The instruction can be given at the end of the case simply by changing the verbs to the past tense.

Instructions concerning the evidence can sometimes help to mitigate the effects of testimony to which an objection is sustained. See Leonard v. Stemtech Int’l Inc, 834 F.3d 376, 400 n.24 (3d Cir. 2016) (noting the presumption that jurors follow instructions and observing that “the District Court instructed the jury at the outset of trial that it should disregard evidence to which an objection was lodged when the objection is sustained”).

(Last Updated October 2017)


Option 1:

Do not be concerned about whether evidence is "direct evidence" or "circumstantial evidence." You should consider and weigh all of the evidence that is presented to you. If your experience tells you that certain evidence reasonably leads to a conclusion, you are free to reach that conclusion.

Option 2:

There are two types of evidence that you may use in reaching your verdict. One type of evidence is called “direct evidence.” An example of "direct evidence" is when a witness testifies about something that the witness knows through his own senses — something the witness has seen, felt, touched or heard or did. If a witness testified that he saw it raining outside, and you believed him, that would be direct evidence that it was raining. Another form of direct evidence is an exhibit where the fact to be proved is its existence or current condition.

The other type of evidence is circumstantial evidence. "Circumstantial evidence" is proof of one or more facts from which you could find another fact. If someone walked into the courtroom wearing a raincoat covered with drops of water and carrying a wet umbrella, that would be circumstantial evidence from which you could conclude that it was raining.

You should consider both kinds of evidence that are presented to you. The law makes no distinction in the weight to be given to either direct or circumstantial evidence. You are to decide how much weight to give any evidence.

COMMENT Option 1 is derived from Fifth Circuit (Criminal) 1.07 (Alternative A). It can be used by those judges who do not wish to say anything about the distinction between direct and circumstantial evidence, but yet might be concerned that jurors would have preconceived notions about these terms.

Option 2 is derived from former Ninth Circuit 3.6. Cf. Ninth Circuit 1.9. The instruction does not attempt to provide a definition of “direct” evidence. The definitions given in some instructions simply repeat the word “direct”. Other instructions on direct evidence are underinclusive, as they refer only to witness testimony, whereas an exhibit can be direct evidence of a fact. The example given in the instruction should be sufficient to give jurors a clear idea of “direct” evidence.

(Last Updated October 2017)


In deciding what the facts are, you may have to decide what testimony you believe and what testimony you do not believe. You are the sole judges of the credibility of the witnesses. “Credibility” means whether a witness is worthy of belief. You may believe everything a witness says or only part of it or none of it. In deciding what to believe, you may consider a number of factors, including the following:

(1) the opportunity and ability of the witness to see or hear or know the things the witness testifies to;

(2) the quality of the witness's understanding and memory;

(3) the witness's manner while testifying;

(4) whether the witness has an interest in the outcome of the case or any motive, bias or prejudice;

(5) whether the witness is contradicted by anything the witness said or wrote before trial or by other evidence;

(6) how reasonable the witness's testimony is when considered in the light of other evidence that you believe; and

(7) any other factors that bear on believability.

[The weight of the evidence to prove a fact does not necessarily depend on the number of witnesses who testify. What is more important is how believable the witnesses were, and how much weight you think their testimony deserves.]

COMMENT This instruction is derived from First Circuit (Criminal) 1.06 and former Ninth Circuit 1.8. Cf. Ninth Circuit 1.11. For variations, see Sixth Circuit (Criminal) 1.07; Seventh Circuit (Criminal) 1.03.

This instruction can be given both at the beginning of the case and at the close of the evidence. For an example of an instruction given at the end of the case, see Eighth Circuit 3.03.

The bracketed material at the end of the instruction may be given usefully at the end of a case in which witnesses on one side outnumber the other. See Instruction 3.2 (Number of Witnesses).

(Last Updated October 2017)


Option 1:

Only the lawyers and I are allowed to ask questions of witnesses. You are not permitted to ask questions of witnesses.

Option 2:

You will have the opportunity to ask questions of the witnesses in writing. When a witness has been examined and cross-examined by counsel, and after I ask any clarifying questions of the witness, I will ask whether any juror has any further clarifying question for the witness.

If so, you will write your question on a piece of paper, and hand it to my Deputy Clerk. Do not discuss your question with any other juror. I will review your question with counsel at sidebar and determine whether the question is appropriate under the rules of evidence. If so, I will ask your question, though I might put it in my own words. If the question is not permitted by the rules of evidence, it will not be asked, and you should not draw any conclusions about the fact that your question was not asked. Following your questions, if any, the attorneys may ask additional questions. If I do ask your question you should not give the answer to it any greater weight than you would give to any other testimony.

COMMENT The trial judge has discretion to permit or to disallow questions from the jury. Option 1 is for judges who want explicitly to disallow jury questions. See Ninth Circuit 1.15 (comment) (“Whether to allow jurors to ask questions is a subject debated among judges.”). Option 2 (derived from the instruction given by District Judges in Camden) is for judges who want to tell jurors explicitly that they may submit questions to be asked of witnesses. Some judges, however, may not want to give an explicit instruction allowing or disallowing jury questions, but may wish instead to wait and see if jurors inquire about asking questions, and then rule on whether to allow questions.

In United States v. Hernandez, 176 F.3d 719, 723 (3d Cir. 1999), the Third Circuit “approved of the practice [of permitting juror questions] so long as it is done in a manner that insures the fairness of the proceedings, the primacy of the court's stewardship, and the rights of the accused.” The court in Hernandez also held that, if the trial judge allows jury questions, the court should follow a procedure for questions to prevent jury misconduct. Id. at 726 (warning that “the judge should ask any juror-generated questions, and he or she should do so only after allowing attorneys to raise any objection out of the hearing of the jury”). The court also noted that “properly structured juror questioning in a civil trial poses even fewer” risks than in a criminal trial. Id.

The Third Circuit recognized in Hernandez that there are arguments for and against allowing jurors to submit questions for witnesses. The best argument in favor of jury questioning is that it helps jurors clarify factual confusions and understand as much of the facts and issues as possible so that they can reach an appropriate verdict. On the other hand, allowing jurors to ask questions may risk turning them into advocates and compromising their neutrality. See United States v. Bush, 47 F.3d 511 (2d Cir. 1995). In this regard, it is not appropriate to allow jurors to ask questions that appear to suggest a view about the merits of the case.

(Last Updated October 2017)


Option 1:

If you wish, you may take notes during the presentation of evidence, the summations of attorneys at the conclusion of the evidence, and during my instructions to you on the law. My Courtroom deputy will arrange for pens, pencils, and paper. Remember that your notes are for your own personal use -- they are not to be given or read to anyone else.

As you see, we have a court reporter here who will be transcribing the testimony during the course of the trial. But you should not assume that the transcripts will be available for your review during your deliberations. Nor should you consider notes that you or fellow jurors may take as a kind of written transcript. Instead, as you listen to the testimony, keep in mind that you will be relying on your recollection of that testimony during your deliberations. Here are some other specific points to keep in mind about note taking:

1. Note-taking is permitted, not required. Each of you may take notes. No one is required to take notes.

2. Be brief. Do not try to summarize all of the testimony. Notes are for the purpose of refreshing memory. They are particularly helpful when dealing with measurements, times, distances, identities, and relationships. Overuse of note-taking may be distracting. You must determine the credibility of witnesses; so you must observe the demeanor and appearance of each person on the witness stand. Note-taking must not distract you from that task. If you wish to make a note, you need not sacrifice the opportunity to make important observations. You may make your note after having made an observation.

3. Do not use your notes, or any other juror’s notes, as authority to persuade fellow jurors. In your deliberations, give no more and no less weight to the views of a fellow juror just because that juror did or did not take notes. As I mentioned earlier, your notes are not official transcripts. They are not evidence, and they are by no means a complete outline of the proceedings or a list of the highlights in the trial. They are valuable, if at all, only as a way to refresh your memory. Your memory is what you should be relying on when it comes time to deliberate and render your verdict in this case. You therefore are not to use your notes as authority to persuade fellow jurors of what the evidence was during the trial. Notes are not to be used in place of the evidence.

4. Do not take your notes away from court. I repeat, at the end of each day, please leave your notes in the jury room. [Describe logistics of storing and securing notes, for example: “If you do take notes, take them with you each time you leave the courtroom and please leave them in the jury room when you leave at night. At the conclusion of the case, after you have used your notes in deliberations, a court officer will collect and destroy them, to protect the secrecy of your deliberations.”]

Option 2:

As you see, we have a court reporter here who will be transcribing the testimony during the course of the trial. But you should not assume that the transcripts will be available for your review during your deliberations. You must pay close attention to the testimony as it is given.

You may not take notes during the course of the trial. There are several reasons for this. It is difficult to take notes and, at the same time, pay attention to what a witness is saying and the witness’s manner while testifying. One of the reasons for having a number of persons on the Jury is to gain the advantage of your individual and collective memories so that you can then deliberate together at the end of the trial and reach agreement on the facts. While some of you might feel comfortable taking notes, other members of the Jury may not feel as comfortable and may not wish to do so. Notes might be given too much weight over memories, especially the memories of those who do not take notes. So, for those reasons, I ask that you not take notes during the trial.

COMMENT Option 1 is derived from the instruction used by District Courts in Delaware. Slight variations are found in First Circuit (Criminal) 1.08 and Eleventh Circuit (Criminal) 3.1. For other variations, see Fifth Circuit 2.21 and Eighth Circuit 1.04.

Option 2 is derived from Eleventh Circuit (Criminal) 3.2. For a slight variation, see Fifth Circuit (Criminal) 1.02.

In United States v. Maclean, 578 F.2d 64 (3d Cir. 1978), the court held that the trial judge has discretion to allow jurors to take notes. It stated that if note-taking is permitted, jurors must be instructed that the notes are only aids to memory, that they are not conclusive, and they are not to be given precedence over a juror’s independent recollection of the facts. See also American Bar Association, Civil Trial Practice Standards (2007) (court ordinarily should permit jurors to take notes, but should also give a cautionary instruction that notetaking is not required and that notes are not to be used in place of the evidence).

The instruction notes that the jurors should not assume that a transcript of testimony will be available to them during deliberations. It does not say absolutely that transcripts will not be provided. This instruction is in accordance with United States v. Bertoli, 40 F.3d 1384 (3d Cir. 1994), where the court held that when the trial court decides to provide testimony to the jury during deliberations, it has discretion to do so by providing a transcript. See generally Comment 3.3.

(Last Updated October 2017)


This is a civil case. [Plaintiff] is the party [who/that] brought this lawsuit. [Defendant] is the party against [whom/which] the lawsuit was filed. [Plaintiff] has the burden of proving [his/her/its] case by what is called the preponderance of the evidence. That means [plaintiff] has to prove to you, in light of all the evidence, that what [he/she/it] claims is more likely so than not so. To say it differently: if you were to put the evidence favorable to [plaintiff] and the evidence favorable to [defendant] on opposite sides of the scales, [plaintiff] would have to make the scales tip somewhat on [his/her/its] side. If [plaintiff] fails to meet this burden, the verdict must be for [defendant]. If you find after considering all the evidence that a claim or fact is more likely so than not so, then the claim or fact has been proved by a preponderance of the evidence.

In determining whether any fact has been proved by a preponderance of evidence in the case, you may, unless otherwise instructed, consider the testimony of all witnesses, regardless of who may have called them, and all exhibits received in evidence, regardless of who may have produced them.

[On certain issues, called affirmative defenses, [defendant] has the burden of proving the elements of the defense by a preponderance of the evidence. I will instruct you on the facts that will be necessary for you to find on this affirmative defense. An affirmative defense is proven if you find, after considering all evidence in the case, that [defendant] has succeeded in proving that the required facts are more likely so than not so.]

[[Defendant] has also brought claims for relief against [plaintiff], called counterclaims. On these claims, [defendant] has the same burden of proof as has [plaintiff] on [his/her/its] claims.]

You may have heard of the term “proof beyond a reasonable doubt.” That is a stricter standard of proof and it applies only to criminal cases. It does not apply in civil cases such as this. So you should put it out of your mind.

COMMENT This instruction is derived from the following sources: pattern instruction used by District Judges in Camden; pattern instruction used by District Judges in Delaware; Fifth Circuit 3.1 (second paragraph); and Eighth Circuit 3.04.

It is advisable to give this instruction at both the beginning of the case and at the close of the evidence.

It is important that the jury be made aware that the preponderance standard requires an analysis and weighing of all of the evidence presented by both sides. See United States v. Montague, 40 F.3d 1251, 1254-55 (D.C. Cir. 1994):
Often, under a preponderance-of-the-evidence standard, it is assumed that the trier of fact piles up the evidence arguably on the defendant’s side and determines which pile is greater.... In fact, a more accurate notion of the preponderance-of-the-evidence standard is “evidence which as a whole shows that the fact sought to be proved is more probable than not.”

(Last Updated October 2017)


Clear and convincing evidence is evidence that produces in your mind a firm belief or conviction that the allegations sought to be proved by the evidence are true. Clear and convincing evidence involves a higher degree of persuasion than is necessary to meet the preponderance of the evidence standard. But it does not require proof beyond a reasonable doubt, the standard applied in criminal cases.
COMMENT This instruction is derived from Fifth Circuit 2.14. For a variation, see Ninth Circuit 1.4.

The clear and convincing evidence standard has been described as an intermediate standard of proof. See Cruzan v. Missouri Dep’t of Health, 497 U.S. 261, 285 n.11 (1990). It is used to protect especially important interests in a limited number of federal cases.

(Last Updated October 2017)


The trial will proceed in the following manner:

First, attorney(s) for [plaintiff(s)] will make an opening statement to you. Next, attorney(s) for [defendant(s)] may make an opening statement. What is said in the opening statements is not evidence, but is simply an outline to help you understand what each party expects the evidence to show. [A party is not required to make an opening statement.]

After [Before] the attorneys have made their opening statements, [I will instruct you on the applicable law and] then each party is given an opportunity to present its evidence.

[Plaintiff] goes first because [plaintiff(s)] [has/have] the burden of proof. [Plaintiff(s)] will present witnesses whom counsel for [defendant(s)] may cross-examine, and [plaintiff(s)] may also present evidence. Following [plaintiffs'] case, [defendant(s)] may present evidence. Counsel for [plaintiff(s)] may cross-examine witnesses for the defense. [After the parties’ main case is presented, they may be permitted to present what is called rebuttal evidence.]

After all the evidence has been presented, [I will instruct you on the law and then] the attorneys will present to you closing arguments to summarize and interpret the evidence in a way that is helpful to their clients' positions. As with opening statements, closing arguments are not evidence. [Once the closing arguments are completed, I will then instruct you on the law.] After that you will retire to the jury room to deliberate on your verdict in this case.

[At this point the court may wish to inform the jury of the scheduling and length of the trial, and other logistical information.]

COMMENT This instruction is derived from Fifth Circuit 1.1; Eighth Circuit 1.06; and former Ninth Circuit 1.12. Cf. Ninth Circuit 1.19.

Bracketed material allows options to the court on when to give instructions on the law. It is recommended that instructions on the law be given at various points in the trial in order to aid jury comprehension.

(Last Updated October 2017)

Congratulations! You're now booked up on Chapter I of the Pattern Jury Instructions from the 1st Circuit Court of Appeals (US)!

Please get the justice you deserve.


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