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2 PJI 8 | Third Circuit (US)
HB-PJI-CA03-02S0800 Download


Certain charts and summaries that have not been received in evidence have been shown to you in order to help explain or illustrate the contents of books, records, documents, testimony, or other evidence in the case. [Describe the charts and summaries that have not been admitted.] These charts and summaries are not themselves proof of any facts. They are not binding on you in any way. If they do not correctly reflect the facts shown by the evidence in the case, you should disregard these charts and summaries and determine the facts from the evidence.
COMMENT The instruction is derived from former Ninth Circuit 3.9. Cf. Ninth Circuit 2.12.

This instruction is applicable to pedagogical devices and illustrations. Use of this material is governed by Rule 611(a) of the Federal Rules of Evidence, and not by Rule 1006 (which applies to summaries of admissible evidence where that evidence is too voluminous to be examined conveniently in court). See United States v. DeBoer, 966 F.2d 1066, 1069 (6th Cir. 1992) (summaries of already admitted evidence are permissible “so long as an appropriate limiting instruction informs the jury that ‘the chart is not itself evidence but is only an aid in evaluating the evidence’”). If a chart or summary is used only to illustrate or explain evidence already admitted, then it is not itself evidence, and it may not be sent to the jury room.

It is suggested that this instruction be given both at the time the summary is used and at the end of the case. See, e.g., United States v. Ray, 370 F.3d 1039, 1047 n.8 (10th Cir. 2004) (suggesting that the court repeat the limiting instruction “in writing at the trial’s conclusion”), vacated on other grounds, 543 U.S. 1109 (2005).

(Last Updated October 2017)

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