IV | CONCLUSION
The doctrine of judicial immunity is broad. It is a necessity for a strong and independent judiciary. Although the parameters of judicial immunity are extensive, they do have limits. The judicial act requirement of judicial immunity is a basic tenet of the doctrine. If there is no judicial act performed, absolute immunity does not apply. A private prior agreement to rule in favor of a party is not a judicial act under any definition of the term, and therefore should never be afforded judicial immunity protection. Although executive, administrative, legislative, or ministerial acts may be official functions of a judge, they are not judicial acts under a correct reading of the Stump definition. Thus, the doctrine of judicial immunity should not apply in these instances either.
(Fordham Law Review. Joseph Romagnoli)
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on Section IV from Volume 53 Issue 6 Article 10 of Fordham University's Law Review on Judicial Immunity
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